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Rules of Madd (Elongation) in Quran

 Rules of Madd (Elongation)

Letters of Madd -- وي ا , preceded by fat'ha, kasra, or dhamma, in that order, respectively

Natural Madd -- occurs when a letter of madd is neither preceded nor followed by hamza or sukoon; 2 harakas

Madd al-`Iwadh (Replacement Madd) -- when stopping on a double fat'ha, it becomes a natural mad

Madd al-Badal (Substitution Madd) -- hamza occurs before madd; 2 harakas
Hamza After Madd
Al-Madd Al-Muttasil (Connected Madd) 
It occurs when one of the three letters of Madd 
و , ا , ي
Followed by a hamza ء, in the next/separate word
so lengthen to 2, 4 or 5 harakas( counts)
AL-Madd Al-Munfassil (Seperated Madd)
 It occurs when the three letters of Madd و , ا , ي   
Followed by a hamza (ء )  in the same  word
so lengthen to  4, or 5 harakas(counts)

Sukoon after Madd
Aridh li Sukoon (Voluntary Stop, no written sukoon, as if you ran out of breath or reached the end of a verse) -- 2, 4, or 5 harakas
Madd al-Leen (Easygoing Madd, silent ي or و, preceded by a fat'ha) -- 2, 4, or 5 harakas
Real Sukoon After Madd
Madd Lazim Kalimi (mandatory, one word; real, permanent sukoon after madd) -- 6 harakas
*proper sukoon -- only one word in the entire Qur'an, occurs twice in Surah Yunus, Ch. 10 vv.51, 91: أَالآنَ
*shaddah -- indicates that there are two of that letter, the first with a sukoon, followed by the same letter with a haraka
Madd as-Sillah (Connecting Madd)
-- refers to masculine pronoun of third person 
(for example, his book, كتابه), sounds similar to the و vowel sound
*If either letter before or after it is silent, no madd
*If letter before is not silent, and after it is hamza, then 2, 4, or 5 harakas
*If letter before is not silent, and after it is any letter besides hamza, only 2 harakas
Madd Al-Lazim Al-Harfi 
(Al-Muqata'aat, the Abbreviated Letters)

There is three kind of these letters :
* no madd : ا
*madd of 2 harakas: ح ي ط ه ر
*madd of 6 harakas: ن ق ص ع س ل ك م

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