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Lesson 28, النَّبْر or The Accent in Quran, Tajweed guide book 1

Lesson 28   (intermediate)

This is lesson 28  of “Tajweed Guide to Read Right book, part 1”

The book Available at :- Amazon

lesson 28, النَّبْر or The Accent in Quran,
Tajweed guide book 1

The accent النبر in recitation of the Glorious Qur'an
The accent ( النبر) is defined in the modern study of sounds as:  Pressure on a part or a specific letter of the word, so that its sound is a little louder than that of the juxtaposed letters.  

This accent (  النبر) varies from language to language, and from dialect to dialect.  An important thing to note here is that in as far as the Qur’anic recitation goes the term نبر is a modern term describing what occurs in recitation passed down through generations from the mouth of the Prophet (peace be upon him).  Making an “accent” at the places that will be described necessary by all certified scholars of the Qur’an, but the actual term may be different. 
In the Glorious Qur’an the نبر is noted, and Allah knows best, in the complete rules of recitation in six different circumstances.   

The first circumstance of the accent  نبرin recitation
The accent  نبر remains When continuing & When stopping
There are two cases:
 1.  This case occurs when pronouncing any Waw و or  Ya ي that has a shaddah 
Examples: حُـيِّيتُم   , القُوَّة  , قَوَّامُون , شَرقِيَّة
 There is a نبر in these cases due to the possibility of incorrectly reciting a medd (lengthening) or lengthening the leen.  In the example of   القُوَّة and شَرقِيَّة  the و and ي are preceded by a vowel of its own category, meaning the و is preceded by a dhammah, and the ي  is preceded by a kasrah.  There is no lengthening here, and to avoid it, the و and ي  are read with an accent (  نبر), making clear to the listener that there is no lengthening.  Pressure on the letter cuts short its time, and therefore excludes the possibility of lengthening it.  The same can be said of the و and ي  that have a shaddah and are preceded by a fath, as in قَوَّامُون, and سَيَّارَة.  Fear of the reader creating an inappropriate lengthened leen letter necessitates a نَبر

2- Any Shaddah letter after Madd Lazem الْحَرْف الْمُشَدَّد بَعْد الْمَد اللازِم

This occurs when changing over from a medd letter to the first letter of a shaddah.  The saakin letter occurs with  تَصَادُمand the mouth was busy emitting the lengthened letter, so then it is necessary at the change over from the medd to the saakin letter that occurs after it,  we put an accent ( نبر) in our recital to facilitate this change over.  This نبر allows us to comply with reciting the saakin letter with  تَصَادُم (with collision) that leaves an acoustical mark.  The saakin letter then makes its presence known quite clearly.  If the  تَصَادُم (collision) is weak the letter is then pronounced with a weak sound to such a degree that it may not even be heard. This is often heard from some people when they recite
  وَلَا الضَّآلِّينَ, with one ل with a kasrah on it instead of the two written ل , the first saakinah, the second with a vowel; this mistake of pronouncing only one ل is due to not making the نبر.  Other examples of this the third circumstance of the نبر are in:
دَابَّة , يُشَاقِّ , يُحَادُّونَ , الْحَآقَّةُ   وَلَا الضَّآلِّينَ ,  
In all these cases there is a medd letter followed by a shaddah, and we need to make an accent, or raise our voices slightly at the end of the medd, to make sure we pronounce both parts of the shaddah, the saakin letter and voweled letter.

The cases of نَبر  in number 3 and 4  remains when stopping but not when continuing
2-ثَابِت وَقْفًاوَسَاقِط وَصْلًا

3- Stopping on a Hamzah preceded by a Madd or Leen letter
This occurs when stopping on a word that has a hamzah as the last letter preceded by a medd letter or leen letter.  The reason for النبر here is so that the hamzah is not lost after the mouth was busy emitting the medd or leen letter.  Remember, we do not stop on the hamzah with a sukoon when there is a tanween with a fathah on the hamzah when it is the last letter of the word; instead we stop with a مَد العِوَض, so there would be no نبر then.

Eample : السَّمَآء ,  شَـيْء

4- Stopping on a word that that has a shaddah on the last letter.
Examples:  فَطَلٌّ, الْحـَىُّ
  , فَمُسْتَقَرٌّ,  وَبَثّ
All of these are examples where the last letter of the word has a shaddah.  We know that a shaddah on a letter indicates that the letter is divided in to two letters as far as formation of the letters goes.  The first is formed by collision (تَصَادُم ) of the two articulation bodies , where as the second is formed by separation
( تباعُد) of the two articulating bodies; this is when the reader is continuing reading and not stopping on the word.  When stopping on a word like this, we stop with one saakin letter, meaning this letter is formed by collision (
تَصَادُم ) of the two articulating bodies.  It is then as if one letter has been dropped from the reading.  It is for this reason that the learned reciters of the Qur’an warn of the necessity of an accent on this last letter, actually beginning on the letter preceding it, to point out to the listener that this one letter, is actually two.  We drop the vowel of the last letter of a word when stopping, but do not eliminate the letter. 
 An exception to the نَبْر  in this case are the noon and meem with shaddah on them. These two letters with a shaddah have the most complete ghunnah.  This long ghunnah lets the listener know that there are two letters.  Stopping on the word    لَكِنِ  is therefore different than stopping on the word لَكِنَّ  and stopping on كَانَ is different than stopping on  الجَانَّ ,  so as stated, there is no need for an accent (نَبْر ) in the case of stopping on a word that ends with a  نnoon or  مmeem with a shaddah
Another exception, Allah knows best, is stopping on a qalqalah letter that has a shaddah.  When stopping on a word ending with a qalqalah letter with a shaddah, both letters of the shaddah are pronounced.  Examples are in the following words: الحَقُّ      and وَتَبَّ
When stopping on either of these words both ب and both ق are pronounced.  The first ب in the word وَتَبَّ is pronounced with a sukoon, and the second is pronounce with a qalqalah.  The same can be said about the two ق in the word الحَقُّ.  The نَبْر  is then left out in this case.

The cases of نَبر  in number 5 and 6  remains when continuing but not when stopping
3- ثَابِت وَصْلًاوَسَاقِط وَقْفًا
5- Waw Leneyah  Which is merged into the voiled Waw
Eample : عَصَوا وَّكَانُوا
                   ءاوَوا وَّنَصَرُوا
6- An Alif of the dual form that  was dropped due to
 The Arabic rule“forbidding 2 Sakin letters To be recited together

This circumstance encompasses three different words in three specific locations in the Qur’an, when these words are read in continuation with the following word.  These three words are all past tense verbs in the double form of the verb (which is an alif) followed by a sukoon.  The نَبْر  is needed in these three places so the meaning of the verse is not confused.  The نَبْر  is an indication that there is an alif indicating a double present, but it was dropped in pronunciation due to the Arabic rule forbidding two saakin juxtaposed letters to be recited together.  Without the نَبْر , the listener may think the verb is male singular instead of male double.  The نَبْر  is used only when reciting these words in continuum with the next word, when stopping on the verbs the alif indicating a double is then pronounced because there is no longer the meeting of two saakin letters and there is no need for the نَبْر  since the reason for it has disappeared.

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