Lesson 29, The Compulsory Madd الْمَد ا للَّازِم

Lesson 29   (intermediate)
This is lesson 29  of “Tajweed Guide to Read Right book, part 1”
                                    Lesson 29, The Compulsory Madd الْمَد ا للَّازِم  

Its definition:  An original (or fixed) sukoon is positioned after a Madd letter, in a word or a letter.
By original it is meant that the sukoon is part of the original make up of the word, and is present when continuing the reading and when stopping.

Its Divisions:
 المَد   اللازِم   is divided into two groups:
      1.  The Compulsory Word Lengthening مَد لَازِم كَلِمِي
      2.  The Compulsory Letter Lengthening مَد لَازِم حَرْفِي  

Each of these two divisions is further divided into two more divisions. We therefore, have four divisions of the المَد   اللازِم.


      1.  The Compulsory Heavy Lengthening in a Word مَد لَازِم كَلِمِي مُثَقَّل
      2.  The Compulsory Light Lengthening in a Word    مَد لَازِم كَلِمِي مُخَفَّف

      3.  The Compulsory Heavy Lengthening in a Letter   مَد لَازِم حَرِفِى مُثَقَّل 

      4.  The Compulsory Light Lengthening in a Letter مَد لَازِم حرفي مُخَفَّف




The Compulsory Heavy Lengthening in a Word الْمَد ا للَّازِم الكَلِمِي المُثَقَّل 
Its definition: It is when an original sukoon (the letter has a shaddah on it ) comes after a Medd letter in a word. 
The word heavy
مُثَقَّل refers to the Shaddah.  A shaddah indicates two letters of the same, the first one with a sukoon, and the second with the vowel that is accompanying the shaddah. The two letters have merged (إِدْغَام ) into each other, and thence the shaddah.
It is called  لَازِم   due to the permanent, or original sukoon found when the reader stops or continues, or because all readers agree that this lengthening must be 6 vowel counts.  It is called كَلِمِي due to the fact that the Medd letter is in one word. 
Examples: ولَا الضَّالين  ,  الصَّاخَة
The Compulsory Light Lengthening in a Word الْمَد ا للَّازِم الكَلِمِي المُخَفَّف

Its Definition: It occurs when an original sukoon that is not merged (no shaddah on it), follows a Medd letter in a word.  The word light (مُخَفَّف) comes from the letter not being merged.  This refers to the letter with the sukoon that follows the medd letter.
Places of this lengthening:
There are only two places of occurrence in
one word of this kind of lengthening in the Qur’an.
http://abouttajweed.com/yunus51.jpghttp://abouttajweed.com/yunus%2091.jpg

Its measure: 6 vowel counts
The Separate Letters that begin some Surahs
Preface: The letters that begin some of the Surahs of the Qur’an are fourteen in number.  These fourteen letters are found in the phrase:
" نَصٌّ حَكِيمٌ قَطعَا لَهُ سِر
 “These letters are divided into four groups:
      1.  That which has no medd at all: This refers to the  Alif   (أَلِف)  as it has no Medd letter in it.
       2.  That which has a Medd of two counts: The letters in this category can be found in the phrase:
"
حَيٌّ طَهُر
 “meaning the letters are recited as  حا, يا, طا,ها,را
 when found in the letters that sometimes begin a Surah, and are lengthened two counts.  When these letters are written out as above, they consist of only two letters, and are of the natural Medd
(
الْمَد ا لطِّبيعِي).
       3.  That which has a Medd of six vowel counts: The rest of the letters from the fourteen that start some Surahs of the Qur’an fall into this category.  These letters are seven in number, and can be found in the phrase:
سَنَقُصُّ لَكُم
 ".  All are lengthened six counts.   The letters of the group  سَنَقُصُّ لَكُم are categorized into to two groups:
 The Light Compulsory Lengthening in a letter
الْمَد ا للَّازِم الكَلِمِي المُخَفَّف  and The Heavy Compulsory Lengthening in a letter  الْمَد ا للَّازِم الكَلِمِي المُثَقَّل .
The category that the letter falls into depends on whether it is merged into the next letter, or not. 

سَنَقُصُّ لَكُم      



الْمَد ا للَّازِم الكَلِمِي المُثَقَّل
The Heavy Compulsory Lengthening in a letter
الْمَد ا للَّازِم الكَلِمِي المُخَفَّف
The Light Compulsory Lengthening in a letter
A.        The letter when written out consists of three letters
  B.        The middle of the three letters is a medd letter
C.        A merged letter follows the Medd letter, meaning that the third letter is merged with the letter that follows it.
A.        The letter when written out consists of three letters
B.        The middle of the three letters is a medd letter
  C.        A Saakin letter follows the medd letter, but it is not merged with the letter that comes after it




       4.  The " عَيْن ": The عَيْن can be lengthened four or six vowel counts, according to the rules of the way we read, which is the way of: Hafs ‘an ‘Aasim from the way of Shatibiyyah
(
حَفص عَن عَاصِم مِن طَريق الشَّاطِبية).   This is due to the fact that the  عَيْن as a separate letter of an opening to a surah is found at the beginning of surah Maryam  and the beginning (second aayah) of surah Ash-Shooraa.    
The Compulsory Light Lengthening in Letters الْمَد ا للَّازِم الكَلِمِي المُخَفَّف 
Its definition: The letters of the group " سَنَقُصُّ لَكُم " are each individually read as a three letter word, the middle letter being a medd letter, andthe third letter having an original (or permanent) sukoon.  The determiner of the letter being مُثَقَّل or مُخَفَّف is the last letter and whether it merges with the first letter of the next three letter word or not.  In the case of  the مُخَفَّف letter, it is not merged with what comes next.  This is why it is called مُخَفَّف.  This Medd is lengthenedsix vowel counts.   Examples:  الٓر
ألف لام    را
In this example we can see that the ل  when written out consists of three letters; the middle letter is a medd letter (alif) , the last letter
("م ") has a sukoon it, and is followed by a  ر , which the م does not merge into, and therefore it is called مُخَفَّف.
The Compulsory Heavy Lengthening in Letters الْمَد ا للَّازِم الكَلِمِي المُثَقَّل 
Its definition: This type of lengthening occurs when a letter of the " سَنَقُصُّ لَكُم " group of letters that begin some of the surahs, (as described above), has the last letter of the three letter word representing the individual letter, merging into the letter that comes after it.  This is the reason for it being called مُثَقَّل (heavy). This medd has a required lengthening of six counts. Example:    الٓمٓ
In this example, we find two letters, the ل and the م that consist of three letters. The ل  has a medd letter as the middle letter, then followed by a letter that is a م sakinah, but merged with the first letter of the next spelled out letter م . The ل  is then          الْمَد ا للَّازِم الكَلِمِي المُثَقَّل .  The م does not have its third letter merging with what comes next (there is none after the meem), so it is الْمَد ا للَّازِم الكَلِمِي المُخَفَّف .
Summary of different medd in the letters that begin some surahs
أَلِف
No medd
حَيٌّ طَهُر
Two count natural medd
سَنَقُصُّ لَكُم
http://abouttajweed.com/al-medd%20al-laazaim%20al-harfee.jpg
Merged
(
مُثَقَّل)
Not merged
(
مُخَفَّف)
Six vowel counts
عَيْن
Follower of the leen medd
Four or six vowel counts



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