lesson 21,The Rules of Noon Saakin or Tanween,tajweed guide book 1

lesson 21,The Rules of Noon Saakin or Tanween,tajweed guide book 1 

Lesson 21  (intermediate)
This is lesson 21  of “Tajweed Guide to Read Right book, part 1”
Available at :- http://www.lulu.com/spotlight/tajweedGuide
Lesson 21: The Rules of Noon Saakinah and Tanween
Noon Saakinah and Tanween
Noon saakinah is a noon  نfree from any vowel حركة.  It remains unchanged in its written form and as well as in pronunciation when continuing to read after it and when stopping on it. Noon saakinah occurs in nouns and verbs in the middle of the word and at the end of the word, and occurs in prepositions and particles only at the end of the word.  

The tanween is a term for an extra noon saakinah not used for emphasis, found at the end of nouns when continuing the reading, but absent from the noun in the written form (the noon of the tanween is pronounced but not written), and abandoned in pronunciation when stopping.  The tanween can be accompanying a fathah, a dhammah, or a kasrah, as in: . ـً  ـٍ  ـٌ
When there is a noon saakinah or tanween, we need to look at the next letter following the noon saakinah or tanween.
  The letter that follows determines how the noon is pronounced, depending on the rule that is applied.  There are four rules of tajweed applied to the noon saakinah and tanween. The rules are applied to the noon saakinah in the same way that they are applied to the tanween.  The four rules are:
 The Making Clear  الاظهار الحلقي : In this case the Noon is read clearly
The Merging  الادغام: In this case the ن is merged into the next letter of يرملون  group
The Changing الاقلاب :  Here the Noon ن is changed into Meem م.
 The Hiding الاخفاء الحقيقي : The Noon ن is hidden so it is not a clear noon, but at the same time, not merged into the next letter.




The first of these rules, the Ith-har الاظهار or clarity of the Noon Saakinah and Tanween. 
The word Ith-har اظهار  is defined linguistically as: clear or obvious.
The applied definition of the Ith-har اظهار     is: Pronouncing every letter from its articulation point without a Ghunnah [in this case, without a prolonged Ghunnah] on the clear letter.
In other words, when this Ith-har اظهار rule is applied to the Noon Saakinah or Tanween, the Noon ن is pronounced clearly, and articulated from its articulation point. 
Its letters : the six letters which are articulated from the throat: ء هـ ع ح غ خ
  When the Noon Saakinah or Tanween is followed by any of these six letters, the Noon is then pronounced clearly. 
2-  the second of the four possible rules is Idgham  الادغام, or merging of the Noon Saakinah ن and Tanween into the next following letter.
The Idgham الادغام is defined linguistically as : merging or inserting.
Its applied Tajweed definition is: The meeting of a non-voweled letter with a voweled letter, so that the two letters become one emphasized letter of the second [letter] kind.
In the Idghaam of Noon Saakinah and Tanween, the Noon is a saakin (non-voweled) letter on the end of a word, and the first letter of the next word is one of the letters that cause the Noon to merge or insert into it. 
Its letters : the letters in the group: يرملون.  This means if a Noon Saakinah or Tanween are at the end of a word, and the letter يـ  or ر   or م or ل orو  or ن is the first letter of the next word, the Noon then merges into this next letter. 
3- The Iqlab الاقلاب (changing) of the Noon Saakinah and tanween
It is defined in applied Tajweed as: The changing of Noon Saakinah or  the Tanween into a م when followed by a ب  with the observance of a lengthened Ghunnah on the letter Meem. 
If the letter ب occurs immediately after a Noon saakinah in the same word, or between two words (meaning the Noon Saakinah or the Tanween would be at the end of word, and the  بthe first letter of the next word), it is then required that the reader changes the Noon Saakinah or Tanween into a hidden Meem, with a Ghunnah present.  The Noon Saakinah is changed into a Meem in pronunciation, not in the written word.  You may note that most copies of the Qur’an have a very small meem written over or under the noon in this case, or the second line of a fat-h or kasrah tanween or Dhammah of the Tanween is replaced by a small Meem. 
The Meem hidden, not by leaving a small space between the lips, as some modern scholars have said, but by closing the lips and holding the Meem for the length of the Ghunnah, then opening them with the  ب
This is the correct way of “hiding” the Meem as written in the books of the old scholars, and as passed down in applied recitation by chains of transmission that go back to the Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him)
4- The Ikhfa  الاخفاء الحقيقي , the last of the four rules for the Noon Saakinah and Tanween. 
The Ikhfa  الاخفاء الحقيقي  is linguistically defined as: hiding or concealment 
The applied definition of the Ikhfa  الاخفاء الحقيقي is: The pronunciation of a non-voweled letter stripped of any shaddah, characterized somewhere between an Ith-har الاظهارand an Idgham الادغام with a Ghunnah غنة remaining on the first letter, in this case the Noon saakinah and the Tanween.
The letters of the Ikhfa الاخفاء for the Noon Saakinah and Tanween are all the remaining letters in the Arabic alphabet after we remove the letters that cause Ith-har الاظهار, Idghaam الادغام , and Iqlabالاقلاب.  There are 15 letters in the Arabic alphabet, all causing Ikhfa الاخفاء , or hiding of the Noon Saakinah and Tanween;
they are:  ص ذ ث ك ج  ش ق س د ط ز ف ت ض ظ

If a Noon Saakinah or Tanween is followed by any of these 15 letters, we hide the Noon. 
The Ikhfa الاخفاء can take place between two words or in the middle of a word. 
To hide the Noon our tongue does not touch the teeth or gum, instead our tongue moves close to, but not at, the articulation point of the next letter, which is the letter causing the Ikhfa الاخفاء (hiding).  We then hold this sound with an accompanying Ghunnah (غنة) for the amount of timing appropriate for the Ikhfa الاخفاء
It is also known as الاخفاء الحقيقي
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